Gari, made from fermented bitter cassava roots(Manihot esculenta Crantz) was successfully processed from already dried cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash with 67% moisture was prepared from dried cassava chips. Various levels of fresh cassava mash(0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) were added and fermented for 72hrs. The total titratable acidity in the gari samples during the 72hr period of fermentation ranged from 0.014 – 0.054% lactic acid. The pH changes ranged between 4.1 and 4.4,while the frying time of chips into gari ranged between 31– 35 minutes and required a period of 28 minutes for frying chips that did not contain fresh cassava into gari. The yield of gari from the chips ranged from 83.33% - 85.0% and a yield value of 24.9% of gari were obtained from the fresh roots. Pasting properties of the gari samples from the fermented mash showed that gari obtained from 5% chips blended with 5% fresh cassava mash prior to fermentation, had maximum viscosity value of 555BU, which is comparable to 520BU in commercial gari. Sensory evaluation indicated that addition of 5% and 15% fresh cassava mash prior to fermentation of the dried chips gave good quality gari which is suitable for making traditional gari paste (eba). Also, the addition of 5% and 10% fresh cassava mash to the chips prior to fermentation, gave acceptable gari suitable for drinking at 5% level of significance.
Three weaning food formulations(A, B and C) were produced by blending varying proportions of corn, bambara nut, sesame and soyabean. The formulated weaning food mixes were analysed for proximate, microbiological and organoleptic qualities using a
cereal based commercial brand as standard for proximate composition and sensory properties. The moisture content of the weaning mixes ranged from 6.43-7.32%, crude protein content(15.71-16.49%), fat(8.33-10.60%), Ash(2.01-2.80%), crude fibre(2.87- 3.79%), carbohydrate(61.18-62.46%) and energy content from 388-406 calorie per 100g of the mixes. Formulations A and B had similar values in protein, fat and energy content like the commercial brand, and met the SON standard for these parameters. Total bacterial counts were 1.3 x 10 for formulation(A), 3.1 x 10 2 3(B) and 2.1 x 102(C). Except for formulation B with 0.2 x 101 mould contamination. There were no mould growth in formulations A and C. Equally, coliform and E-coli were not detected in the weaning mixes. Sensory analysis revealed acceptability of all the weaning mixes and preference for weaning mix A that compared favourably well with the standard in all the quality attributes analysed except in mouthfeel.
The removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants from paint effluents using clay minerals was investigated. Modified clay minerals were prepared by treating and mixing kaolin and bentonite in acidic, basic and neutral media respectively. This was used to purify effluents from paint industries through a process involving coagulation and precipitation for the removal of insoluble impurities followed by sorption on these modified adsorbent for the removal of the inorganics. The treated effluents were analyzed for the concentration of cadmium, lead, copper, iron, zinc, also, some gross organic pollution indicators such as biochemical oxygen demand at five days (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand(COD) as well as colour, pH and turbidity of these effluents were determined. It was found that percentage removal was over 70% for all the determinants. The modified clay was at its best when acidic. This implies that quality effluent was obtained when the pH of solubilization was at 4 and 5 respectively.
An investigation was carried out to determine the necessary parameters and the required information for the operation of a 42m biogas digester constructed at Ojokoro for 3 Ojokoro Cooperative Agricultural Multipurpose Society(OCAMS) by the Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi(FIIRO). The total solids and volatile solids were 14.02% and 3.7% respectively. A mixing ratio of 1.4 kg of piggery wastes to 1.0 litre of water was found to be optimal with a retention time of 15 days. Quantity of biogas produced per day was 65.68 m3 with methane content of 45.68 m3.
A feasibility study was carried out on small-scale industrial production of clarified fruit juice using pectinase enzyme hydrolysis. The process technology for the pectinase enzyme production and clarified fruit juice process technology were simple and the equipment was locally designed and fabricated. Raw material survey indicated that there are abundant fruits and vegetables in Nigeria to support commercial production of clarified juices. The total national demand for fruit juices was estimated at about 10,000 MT/annum. The economic evaluation was based on maximum annual production capacity of 1,000kg of fresh fruits per day
i.e., 250,000 kg of fresh fruits per annum. The total initial investment cost was estimated at x6,248,033. The net profit varies from x6,518,784 - x6,618388 within the first five years of operation. The projected cash flow in year one is positive, i.e., x4,943,475. The net present value(NPV) at 30% is also positive, i.e., x5,056,670.00. The rate of return on investment(RRI) and rate of return on equity(RRE) in year one are 108% and 260% respectively, while the internal rate of return(IRR) is above 50%, which is over the current bank interest rate of 30%. The pay back period(PBP) is 10 months. These financial and economic indices indicate a viable and worthwhile investment.
This study presents an economic assessment of commercial production of 10% cassava – wheat composite flour bread. The evaluation was based on an annual bakery capacity of 7,500 bags of flour or twenty-five bags of flour per day(at 100% capacity utilization), with production taking off in the first year at 48% capacity utilization and gradually increases to 96% capacity utilization in the fifth year. Financial and economic performance indicators in the first year of operation are as follows: Return on Investment, ROI(19.1%); Return on Equity, ROE(47.8%); Net Profit to Sales Ratio(6.9%); Capital Turnover Ratio, CTR(2.8) and Fixed to Total Asset Ratio(0.58). The Internal Rate of Return(IRR) is above 40% which is greater than 25% - the cost of fund. The Net Present Value(NPV) at 25% is x1,800,310.00. The payback period and the discounted payback period are 2.7 and 3.5 years respectively. The Debt Service Coverage Ratio(DSCR) showed a gradual increase from 2.1 to 3.3. The breakeven point in year one is 23.7% or break-even value of x7,047,810.00. All these economic indices attest to the viability of the project.
A B S T R A C T
Some Nigerian indigenous soups were prepared and evaluated chemically for their nutritive composition and organoleptically for acceptability. Chemically, ‘Edikang-ikong’ soup had the highest protein content of 14.34g/100g, iron content of 6.30mg/100g and potassium content of 710mg/100g, while bitter leaf soup (Onugbu) commonly consumed by the Igbo speaking Nigerians followed closely with protein content of 9.60g/100g, phosphorous of 770mg/100g and calcium of 320mg/100g. ‘Nsala soup’ ranked pari-passu Onugbu soup with protein content of 9.23g/100g, lowest fat content of 2.29g/100g, phosphorous of 800mg/100g and calcium of 290 mg. ‘Egusi’ soup (with ugu vegetable) consumed by all and sundry within the country had the highest calorific value of 168.80 Kcal/100g, fat content of 9.36g/100g, protein content of 6.44g/100g and ranked next to ‘Edikang-ikong’ in iron content(3.00mg/100g). All the soups had adequate levels of mineral contents except bitter leaf soup (Oriwo), which recorded highest calcium content of 470mg/100g compared to soups but, lower than RDI. Sensory evaluation results indicated acceptability of all the traditional soups. However, significant difference (P < 0.05) exists between the soups in colour/appearance, taste, mouthfeel, flavour, aroma, consistency and overall acceptability. All the traditional soup samples, except ‘oriwo’ soup had significantly high ratings for all the quality attributes analysed. Nevertheless, ‘Egusi’ soup was the most acceptable of all the soups.
The production of oxytetracycline by a mix culture of Streptomyces rimosus and S. vendagensis using cassava peels as solid – state medium was investigated. Results obtained showed that the rate of production of the antibiotic using cassava peels solely as the production substrate was very poor (1.8mg/g). However, a 50:50 combination ratio of cassava peels to groundnut shell showed a remarkable improvement on the rate of the antibiotic production(5.2mg/g). Supplementation of the combined cassava peels – groundnut shell production medium with various sources of organic nitrogen and peanut oil produced a significant increase in the rate of the antibiotic production. Of the various organic nitrogen sources investigated, rice bran elicited the highest percentage increase on the rate of the antibiotic production over the control(140 %), while soybean meal had the least effect(66 %).
A total of 128 bacteria were isolated from four different tannery industries, all located in Kano State, northern Nigeria. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus sp, Moraxella sp, Pseudomonas sp, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp, Proteus sp and Salmonella sp. The tannery industry with the highest number of bacteria isolate is industry A. There were 5 main species isolated from the tannery effluent, which are common to all the tannery industries. These are: Moxarella sp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp. The significance of the result is discussed in relation to the Nigerian environment and human health.
Wheat gluten was brewed in a micro-brewing trial with a slight modification from the conventional, in which aqueous enzymatic infusions of Munkoyo(Eminia polyadenia) was the primary saccharifying material and 5-day wheat malt was the comparative material. It was found that Munkoyo proteolytic enzymes solubilized more of the gluten protein than the wheat malt analogue enzyme, notwithstanding the higher endopeptidase activity of the wheat malt enzymic extract. On the other hand, Munkoyo, with a superior carboxypeptidane activity, produced a slightly inferior amount of Normal α-amino acids compared to wheat malt enzymic infusion. This study confirmed the adequacy of Munkoyo proteolytic enzymes to furnish the requisite protein bodies for the manufacture of fermented alcoholic beverages. Its unfermented wort carries the potential of enriching food systems into which it might be applied.