A comprehensive data of nutritional contents of cooked foods indigenous to Nigeria and generally consumed by the populace has been developed. The project assumed a form of importance because such information shall be useful for food science and technology programs, nutritionists, dieticians, researchers and public health workers. Forty-four different dishes were prepared from cereals, roots and tubers of different species covering four geo-political zones in Nigeria.Cereals covered include rice, corn and beans while roots and tubers were cassava, yam, cocoyam, wateryam and sweet potatoes. Proximate parameters analyzed for are Moisture, Protein, Fat, Crude fibre, Ash and Carbohydrate; Calorific value as Gross energy and Essential minerals such asiron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. Moisture content of cooked samples varied between 60- 90%, fried had 3.92 -44.43 %, carbohydrate content followed moisture with range of 14.85 – 70%. Protein was found to be appreciable in bean dishes and other indigenous dishes which range from 6.29 to 9.09% while all others had protein content less than 4% except roasted corn which had 6.63%. Crude fibre content was found to be higher than 1% in beans and plantain dishes and between 0.24 and 0.98% in all other dishes. Essential minerals were found to be available in all the corn-based dishes while some rice, beans and tubers were deficient in iron, calcium and phosphorus. These dishes are rich in carbohydrate and water, thereby making the fresh foods to have short lifespan and highly perishable except preserved under 4OC.
Twenty-three soups and four stews were prepared by indigenes of the zones, recipe standardized and soups analyzed for the essential nutrients. The raw materials used were leafy vegetables, seeds (ogbono, melon and groundnut) and fruity vegetable (okro, palm-fruit). All the samples were analysed for proximate parameters and mineral composition. Water content was found to vary between 57.92% and 78% for leafy vegetable soups and lower than57.58% for stews. Protein ranged between 5.87% and 23.54%while fat content was found to vary from 2.03 to 12.37% for leafy vegetable soups and 16.49 to 28.03% for stews.The soups werefound to be rich in minerals and some in fibre especially the fried leafy vegetable soups while they are deficient in carbohydrate. A particular traditional soup known and called white soup (OfeNsala) peculiar to SSgeo-political zone in Nigeria was prepared without added oil contained the lowest fat content of 1.91 % on fresh basis. The soups are rich in anti-oxidants, vitamins and essential minerals.
The project revolved round production of suitable water sanitizer in portable form from food grade chemicals to use in sanitizing polluted water from river, lagoon, well and other surface sources that could be used for domestic purposes.The chemicals employed for the production include sulphate salt, hypochlorite, starch, bicarbonate and lime. These performed various functions such as coagulant, pH modifier,binder and biocide for destroying microbes inherent therein. Four formulations were compounded and used to treat polluted water with different dosages for specific volumes of polluted water samples. The assessment was carried out with imported water sanitizer serving as control. The best formula that performed at an optimum time competing favorably with imported sanitizer was chosen as FIIRO sanitizer. In-vitro study was carried out to check its antioxidant activities.
Agro wastes and other solid wastes which are indiscriminately disposed to the environment were converted to valuable product (Activated Carbon).Materials used for the production of the activated carbon include cow bone, palm kernel shell and coconut shell making use of Physical and Chemical activation. Physical activation involved sorting, washing, drying, sizing and sieving to obtain homogeneous particle size. Carbonization occurred at varying temperatures at specific period for optimization. This preceded chemical activation to obtain a purified activated carbon.
Several varieties of plants are known to have oil bearing seeds or fruits but only few are commercially significant.Nigeria is the sixth largest producer of beniseed and the 5th largest exporter, exporting beniseed to the largest importer Japan without any value addition. Annual exports of beniseed from Nigeria is valued at about US$20 million with most of it being consumed by the farmers. Meanwhile, beniseed market value is about #38,500/tonne, while oil is $2,449/tonne (#367,350). Therefore, this project explores the development of process technology for the extraction of oil from the under-utilized oilseeds, the possibilities of commercializing the extraction of oil and their utilization as industrial raw materials. This include: substitution of soya bean oil with beniseed oil for the production of alkyd resin; and the utilization of beniseed oil as a potential feedstock in the oleochemical industries without putting food security at risk. Beniseed oil was extracted using three methods: solvent, FIIRO fabricated oil expeller, and FIIRO fabricated mechanical press. The oil was refined; storage stability and effect of extraction method on the quality of the oil were investigated. Beniseed oil obtained was converted to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and alkyd resin respectively. From the results obtained, FIIRO oil expeller gave the best quality of oil while solvent extraction using soxhlet gave the highest yield The result of the resin shows good surface drying property within 15minutes.Acid value, viscosity and density after dilution are 8.7mgKOH/g, 80 seconds, 0.9910g/cm3 respectively. The resin was used to produce two colours of gloss paints.This project has demonstrated that beniseed oil can be successfully converted into value added products like alkyd resin and fatty acid methyl ester; an excellent substitute for diesel fuel. In addition we have extracted and extracted oils from other oilseeds indigenous to Nigeria. These include: Luffa cylindrica (sponge gourd),Jatrophacurcas (jatropha), Hibiscus cannabinus L., (kenaf), Adenantherapavonina (red bead tree seed) ,Uvariachamae (bush banana or finger fruit seed), Moringaoleifera, melon, tigernut, conophoretc. Currently we are investigating on value addition to the oils extracted based on their properties.
Food colouring involves the use of any dye, pigment or substance that imparts colour when it is added to food or drink. Colouring matter in foods can be broadly classified into three groups: the synthetic, organic colouring matters; the natural colouring matter, which may be of either vegetable or animal source or the inorganic colours which may be synthetic or of mineral origin. Colour of food is an integral part of Nigerian culture. Therefore, this project focuses on development and production of colourants and dyes from natural sources. We have extracted natural colours from Roselle calyces using different solvents (acidified ethanol,water) and the extracts analysed for colour, pH, total acidity, and total anthocyanins. Physico-chemical analyses of Roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa) indicated that moisture content, protein, fat, fiber and ash were 16.446%, 5.20%, 1.20 %, 9.40 % and 7.69 %, respectively. Mineral contents of K (128.52), Na (10.9593), Ca (152.68), Mg (99.9195), Fe(0.813), Zn(0.2758), Pb (0.318) and C0(ND) were detected at different levels, total anthocyanins for aqueous extraction: 622.91mg/100g, acidified ethanol 1256mg/100g. This project is on-going.
Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava root crop in the world but has little or no role in the international trade in cassava and cassava products. This project is aimed at production of sorbitol from cassava starch. The project is on-going.Presently, glucose has been produced from cassava starch.
Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Chasmanthera dependens which are tropical plants and indigenous Nigerian medicinal plants, is being investigated for the production of topical herbal skin ointments. The study will include the characterization of bioactive compounds from these plants which have anti-skin ulcer, analgesic antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory and antioxidant activity as well as formulating topical herbal medications for the ailments. Thus B.pinnatum and C.dependends samples will be extracted and fractionated. Extracts of B. pinnatum will be used to formulate standardized topical anti-ulcer, antibiotic and antioxidant ointments. With C. dependens extracts, standardized topical analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ointments will be produced. Crude extracts, fractions as well as the herbal formulations will be tested for activity: ulcer healing, anti-oxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic activity.This project is on-going.
Proteases (E.C.3.4), also known as proteolytic enzymes are enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of protein by hydrolyzing peptide bonds existing between two amino acids of a polypeptide chain. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus licheniformis were isolated from local sources, they were further characterized and identified using analytical profile index (API) kit. Casein agar was used for screening to ascertain the identified isolates having the ability to produce alkaline protease in different batches. Rice bran was used as substrate for the production of protease enzyme at pH 6.8. Further analysis such as: pH, temperature, turbidometry, and microbial growth rate were carried out on the culture medium for a period of 0 - 72hours. The results obtained on average for pH was 6.81, temperature 27.3oC, turbidometry 0.006nm and microbial growth was highest after 72 hours giving 52cfu/g. Ammonium sulphate was used for precipitation and 60% of protease purification was achieved. Protease assay was carried out for each production batch. The results obtained for activity, specific activity and protein concentration are as follow: B. subtilis gave (52.767U, 57.259U/mg/ml and 1.6738mg/ml): B.polymyxa gave (57.259U, 1.6524U/mg/ml and 31.029 mg/ml) and B. licheniformis gave values of (24.122U, 14.54U/mg/ml and 1.659mg/ml). Kinetic characterization was done to ascertain their catalytic potentials. Bacillus licheniformis recorded a high initial velocity of 1.87μm/min. This gives a clear indication that although enzyme produced by Bacillus licheniformis recorded a low specific activity compared to the enzyme produced by Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis. It has a better catalytic potential than the other Bacillus species.
Amylolytic enzymes, amylase (E.C.220.127.116.11) and glucoamylase (E.C.18.104.22.168) were produced by solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. The isolate was obtained from soil rich cassava waste dumpsite using standard laboratory techniques. The isolate was further screened using a starch agar medium by spot streaking method to ascertain the ability of the microorganism to degrade starch. Amylase and glucoamylase were produced at pH 7.0 and pH 4.5 respectively. The culture medium consists of rice bran as solid matter mixed with mineral salt solution (MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5g/l; KCl, 0.5g/l; Soluble starch, 1.0g/l, Bacteriological peptone, 6.0g/l). While the production medium was sterilized at 121oC for 20minutes and further allowed to cool, an inoculum size of 1.2 x 10-7 was inoculated into the medium and mixed thoroughly. The culture medium was incubated at 25oC for 120 hours. Crude extracts of amylase and glucoamylase respectively were collected by filtration using muslin clothes at the end of fermentation period and further centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes to obtain clarity. The crude extracts were subjected to purification using ammonium sulphate precipitation method and 60% purified amylase and glucoamylase were achieved. Assay was carried out on amylase and glucoamylase produced. The results obtained for amylase assay gave the following; Activity, 9952.743µmol/l; Specific activity, 163.199µmolmin-1mg-1and Protein concentration, 60.98522mg/ml. While the assay for glucoamylase gave the following; Activity, 16835.32µmol/l; Specific activity, 347.855µmolmin-1mg-1 and Protein concentration, 48.3976mg/ml.