The Thermo Electron S-Series atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Lead, Chromium and Cadmium in undehulled sesame seeds.
The range of concentrations of heavy metals in the samples were 83.10 to 114.01mg/kg Fe, 70.60 to 108.00mg/kg Zn, 15.37 to 24.06mg/kg Cu, 0.78 to 3.12mg/kg Pb, 0.47 to 1.31mg/kg Cr and <0.01 to 0.03mg/kg Cd. The mean concentrations obtained were 95.81mg/kg Fe, 87.96mg/kg Zn, 19.60mg/kg Cu, 1.67mg/kg Pb and 0.83mg/kg Cr. Cadmium was not detected in most of the samples. The concentrations of the heavy metals in sesame seeds reported in this study were bioconcentrated by the plant from the background levels of these elements in the soil. The levels of these heavy metals in this study can be regarded as normal values and should not be a source of health concern.
The effect of heat treatment on urease activity and protein content of soybeans was investigated in order to ascertain processing adequacy and safety for human consumption, and also to determine how much protein (which is the major nutrient) is lost or retained during processing. Three different heat treatments - toasting at 80oC, boiling in water and microwave heating - were used for different time periods ranging from 10-90 mins and samples were analysed afterwards, along with an untreated control, in three replicate determinations. Results show that for soybeans to be fit for human consumption, the seeds need to be boiled for up to 45 mins for the anti-nutritional factor to be taken care of, however with a reduction of almost half of the initial protein content. Toasted and microwave heated seeds retained their protein content, but they were urease positive (implying inadequate processing) and therefore should only be used when further cooking such as baking, frying or boiling has been done.
Managing engineering assets is a paramount organisational approach to operating, maintaining and upgrading physical asset in a most cost-effective way. These processes, among many others, are usually carried out throughout the life-cycle of engineering assets. This study examined the Engineering Assets Management (EAM) processes in selected small and medium-scale food manufacturing companies in South-western Nigeria. Data were collected from selected 30 food manufacturing companies registered with National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) in the study area. The questionnaire was administered to top officials in the companies. The data was analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that most food manufacturing companies had some practice guidelines used in their EAM procedures which is elemental. Only few of these manufacturing companies employed holistic life-cycle approach (the core concept) in EAM practices. They used capabilities and skills of their maintenance crew, documentation of information about the equipment from the manufacturer, and use of contractors as flexible maintenance resource as important factors in determining their assets management approach.
The study assessed the methods of transfer and extent of utilisation of research and development (R&D) results from research institutes in South-western Nigeria. It also examined the various businesses established by entrepreneurs based on acquired technologies as well as the various factors affecting commercialisation of R&D results. The results of data collected through primary and secondary sources from the research institutes, indicated that new processes and products (technologies) were developed by researchers in research institutes. These include: laundry and toilet soap production; cassava processing; palm wine bottling and preservation; among many others. The secondary data obtained from available publications include research reports and published articles. The study showed that out of 104 commercialisable research results generated, 54.8% (57) had been transferred and practised by investors. The effectiveness of various methods of R&D results’ transfer used by research institutes were seminar (3.1), workshop (3.6), trade fairs/exhibitions (3.1), technical assistance service (3.5) and feasibility studies (3.5). Results also showed that commercialisation could be categorised into two such as commercialisation of R&D results by the research institutes (internal commercialisation) and commercialisation by investors who acquired the technologies (external commercialisation). This revealed that out of the 54.8% of the 104 research results transferred, 56.1% were commercialised by the research institutes while 29.8% were commercialised by the investors. Several factors that had affected commercialisation of R&D results severely include lack of investible funds (4.9), unsustainable government policy (4.5), lack of infrastructural facilities (3.9), as well as apathy to local R&D results adoption (3.6). These factors were significantly the same (F= 6.704, p≤0.05). The study revealed workshop was the most effective method of transferring R&D results while the utilisation of R&D results was carried out both by the research institutes and entrepreneurs; the greatest limiting factor for R&D results commercialisation was lack of funds by entrepreneurs.
Regenerative heat exchanger has often been linked with the use of electrical heating device
encased in metallic housing. However, attempts made by many designers to produce such with
fuel firing device in metallic housing have met with material failures over the years. Moreover,
the use of non – metals was erroneously discouraged because of their very low coefficient of
thermal conductivity. In this paper, the poor conductivity and fire resistant properties of non –
metals are now uniquely applied at the threshold of critical insulation phenomenon in a steady
state flow of gaseous combustion mixture that led to a condition in which their insulation
capability are broken down and they become active heat conductors. Thus, the heat transfer
across the non-metallic fire tube became more than twice that of the metallic and yet non–
corrosive when its surface is in direct contact with active liquid fuel combustion. The fire-tube
thermal resistance was evaluated by refractoriness test at 650oC for upward of 3hours during its
final thermo-setting without any physical cracks. Consequently, the non-metals become suitable
materials for manufacturing of fossil fuel fired regenerative heat exchangers, which are
operationally cheaper and technologically more efficient. This unique design has found
application in FIIRO’s fire resistant MCC - fire tube which is the critical operational component of
new version of regenerative heat exchangers often used as hot-air generator in flash drier’s
A major component of an extrusion cooker (also known as extruder) is the electric motor which produces the mechanical power needed to drive the main shaft of the extruder. When a highly rated motor is involved; careful design is required for maximum protection of the electric motor. This work is therefore all about the construction of a star delta starter panel required to power, protect and control the operation of a 50hp extruder motor at the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria (FIIRO). The circuit is in two parts namely – the power circuit and the control circuit. The circuit is housed in a metallic enclosure and connected to the terminals of the motor through a flexible power cable. Proper design of a motor starter for heavy duty application such as these entails guided selection of control components, assembly and wiring method. The materials used for the construction were purchased from the local market and assembled together to form a unit. The design was carried out in such a way as to minimize cost and increase the safety level.
This study evaluates the corrosion behaviours of two grades of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2 steels embedded in concrete and exposed to ordinary water and high chlorine rich seawater environment. Samples of the steels were embedded in concrete with cement-sand-gravel ratio of 1:2:4; cured at different times and later immersed in the corroding media. Corrosion potentials were measured using Cu/CuSo4 reference electrode and the voltmeter. The ST60Mn steel grade was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and seawater environment. The corrosion potential of the steel in air is about twice that embedded in concrete. Long exposure of reinforced concrete structures to chlorine water might result to quick deterioration. Careful attention should therefore be paid to buildings, bridges, elevated highways, parking garages, offshore oil platforms, piers and tunnels, built on or over water.
The breaking of coconut at mechanised and commercial scale has not attracted much attention in Nigeria. Physical and engineering properties are necessary in the design and production of equipment for mechanised production. This research study focuses on the determination of both physical and engineering properties of coconut fruits. The average energy required to break the nut was obtained along the basis of Random Sized Block Design (RCBD). Experimental fruits of matured tall varieties, physical and engineering properties were determined in this study. The determination of the breaking force involves the use of a developed cracking device that drops a weight (hammer) at varying heights to impact cracking force on the coconut fruit. Measured physical properties include: fruit mass, fruit dimensions along the three major axes, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and breaking force. Results showed that mean values of mass and sphericity of the coconut fruit are 337.1g and 0.81 while the mean values of each of the three principal and geometric diameters were 9.7, 7.2, 6.9 and 8.3cm respectively. The mean average energy required to crack the nut at varying heights of 0.85, 0.90, 1.0 and 1.1 are 14.56, 15.5, 17.46 and 19.67J respectively. The maximum energy required to fully crack (fc) the nut is 19.67J. The result showed that 60% of the coconut fruit are fully cracked at this value at a height of 1.1m while 20% were smashed and 20% were fully cracked with wounds.
The study was designed to evaluate the research and development (R&D) outputs and innovation outputs in South-western Nigeria and the factors influencing those outputs. The study covered all the industrial research institutions (RIs) with headquarters in South Western Nigeria. The total industrial R&D outputs from the RIs were 108 of which 67 were commercialised. The sources of ideas for 96.3% of the R&D outputs were from the scientists who were staffs of the institutes.
The reasons suggested by researchers for non-commercialisation of R&D results were inadequacy of fund and infrastructural inadequacy which were rated; very severe. These also included inadequate funding, infrastructure inadequacy, policy instability and poor implementation and lack of incentives to technology users. The study further revealed that all the seven (7) Research Institutes sourced their R&D funds from the Federal Government of Nigeria. Six (6) of the research institutes also sourced their R&D funds from international agencies. However, the average rating of adequacy of research funds to the institutes was 2.43 indicating that funding for R&D was inadequate. The research institutes did not have access to funds from industry and NGOs. These factors (functionality of equipment, R&D ideas from scientists, ratio of scientists to non-scientists, presence of product champion and involvement of entrepreneurs in the innovation process) significantly (p < 0.00) contributed to R&D outputs. In conclusion, the RIs had been able to generate some R&D results within the last ten years. However, not all of them were patented and commercialised because the R&D results were mainly science-pushed.
The economic viability of the industrial production of tomato-based pulp mixes was determined in this study. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out with a view to establishing the commercial viability of the production process. Three product alternatives A, B and C earlier established in the laboratory were considered for the study. The quantities and costs of the raw materials were estimated at 20% – 100% capacity utilisations (CU). Standard cost, and present worth (PW) were calculated and used to establish the profitability of the products. The PW, showed that all the products were economically viable. However, Product C appeared to be more economical in terms of profit maximisation. The economic production of product C was justified at 40-60%CU, but not at 20%. The profitability indexes of the three product alternatives are sensitive to changes in capacity utilisation, life of the project, MARR, net revenue and first cost. In conclusion, production of the tomato-based fruits pulp mixes is technologically and economically viable.