Recently due to current discoveries of the nutritional and bioactive components, whey and its components are considered as main ingredients in most protein formula supplements in infant food, sport nutritional food and beverages among others in the developed country. Whey protein and product provides real benefits for people that are seeking muscle growth, fat loss and high quality nutrition. Whey was used in this research to determine its effect on the intestinal health and microbes using rats as experimental animal.Four groups of rats were fed with different whey samples that is. Fresh liquid whey (FLW), Fermented liquid whey (FELW), Fresh lyophilized whey (FLYW), Fermented lyophilized whey (FELYW). Daily weight was recorded until twenty eight days (28) while their feacal microbial load was enumerated weekly. There was a gradual decrease in their microbial load from the first week to the end, while their weight increases gradually. A sudden increase in their weight was observed at the last day. Blood samples of each group of rats was examined after the end of the experiment for the effect on the liver by determining the activities of the following enzymes; Aspartate Amino-transferase, Alanine Amino-transferase and Alkaline phosphatase which were known to be enzymes present in liver. The effect of these whey samples on the animals Total Protein the results obtained indicated that different wheysamples reacted differently with the same enzymes and their subsequent effect on the liver was shown by the level of activities of these enzymes. Conclusively, though; whey is very high in protein promoting good health and reducing the human intestinal micro-flora, the types to be taken must be considered, in order to achieve the desire results.
In complex projects, products and services requiring the talents of many people, unnecessary costs and redundant functions may sometimes be introduced or costs duplicated. However, economic growth necessitates improved quality of existing products and development of quality management of new product design for customer satisfaction at minimum costs. Value Engineering is a technique organized for identifying and removing unnecessary costs without compromising the quality and reliability of the design. The technique is aimed at delivering to the user/customer of a product the expected functions at lowest cost. This paper discussed the concept of value engineering, its job plans and the effective implementation with reference to an electronics component (control knob) as a case study. With critical evaluation of the electronics control knob, saving per piece of 56.06 percent with total annual saving of #I,110,000 was achieved. Production cycle time per piece was reduced by 9.5 minutes while there was greater reduction of manpower in the production process. The result showed that the increase in productivity did not result in any adverse effect on the quality of the product. The paper also confirmed that the success of the VE process is due to its ability to identify opportunities and remove unnecessary costs while assuring quality, reliability, performance, and other critical factors that meet or exceed customer's expectation.
Cassava leaf, residue, peel and stem were studied for their potential to support mycelia growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius. The leaf, residue, peel and stem of cassava plant were harvested, dried at 50oC for 5 days in a solar dryer. Extracts of the parts were prepared in broth and agar cultures and compared with standard media. The average chemical composition of the leaf, peel, and residue revealed that the leaf had the highest crude protein (14.69%) and ash content (16.07%) while the fiber content was highest in cassava peel (20.97%). All the cassava parts supported mycelia growth. However, cassava peel supported the fastest mycelia ramification within 192hrs while cassava residue and leaf took a longer time; 333.6hrs and 331.2hrs respectively. Mycelia growth on cassava peel extract broth was comparable to yeast and malt extract. Mycelia dry weight and extension in broth and agar cultures after 192hrs of incubation were 75mg, 105mg, 75mg/10ml and 7.4cm, 5.5cm, 8.2cm respectively on cassava peel, yeast extract and malt extract. This is an indication that cassava peel extract could be employed in in-vitro tissue cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius. Cassava peel, an abundant waste in Nigeria, has great potential and could be exploited for mushroom biomass production in Nigeria.
This study investigated the vegetative growth patterns of sixteen accessions of West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei [A. Chev.] Stevels) collected from traditional agriculture systems in Southern Edo State, Nigeria. The morpho-agronomic characters determined include; days from sowing to germination, growth habit, stem type, branching form, stem base diameter, plant height at maturity, stem and leaf colour, leaf shape, internode length and leaf pubescence. Results suggests high degree of variation in growth parameters although few remained uniform in all the accessions. The emergence of seedlings to flower bud production ranged between 95-115 days. Growth habit varied from determinate to indeterminate, stem type, procumbent to erect, stem and leaf pigmentations varied from green to red-purple and green to yellow-green respectively. Main stem is medium to strongly branch with 55% of the accession bearing long internodes. Based on these results, two distinct morphologically diverse types were suggested-determinate, procumbent, and medium branched with short internodes and indeterminate, erect strongly branched with long internode accessions from the study. To promote sustainability and diversification of their uses, these accessions need to be conserved.
Millions of people worldwide depend on ready-to-eat foods (RTEFs) vended on the streets daily, for a wide variety of food choices that are relatively cheap and easily accessible. Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.)Verdc.) Pudding 'Okpa' is a RTEF gaining enormous popularity in Nigeria, thus the need to investigate its microbiological qualities. A total of 30 samples were purchased from six different vendors along the popular 'Sango under-bridge' in Ota and were analyzed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, fungal count, and for specific bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mean total aerobic plate count ranged from 4.06 x104 to 5.38 x 105cfu/g, mean coliform count ranged from <10 to 1.44 x 102cfu/g and mean fungal count was 4.54 x 102 to 5.61 x 104cfu/g. Five different bacteria and three fungi species were identified based on morphological and biochemical tests as major contaminants, these include Bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Mucor, Aspergillus and Rhizopus. The presence of E. coli an indicator organism of faecal contamination, and the relatively high coliform count can be an indication of poor hygiene and sanitation standards post processing or inadequate heat treatment during the preparation of these products. The application of good manufacturing practices (GMP), effective hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) evaluation and adequate supervision and implementation of food- safety practices and regular education of food handlers on food quality standards is advanced to improve this product and other RTEFs.
Phytases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing phytate, the major storage form of phosphorus in plant tissues which constitute feed for non-ruminant livestock leading to the bioavailability of phosphorous and other nutrients chelated to it. The objective of this study was to optimize the phytase expressed by Bacillus subtilis (B. Subtilis) relative to its use as an exogenous enzyme in the gastro intestinal tract of poultry. Bacillus subtilis previously isolated was screened on a phytase specific medium for ability to produce phytase. The isolate was thereafter cultured in a phytase production medium for the expression of phytase. The optimum pH of the expressed phytase for effective activity was determined in an enzyme assay over a pH range of 1.5 to 8.5 at interval value of 0.5, while the optimum temperature was determined over a temperature range of 300C-600C at 50C interval value. The determination of the thermal stability of the phytase was carried out over a temperature range of 500C- 900C at 100C interval value and a heating period of 100 minutes at 10 minute intervals respectively. Results showed the presence of two pH optima of 3.0 and 5.5 respectively and an optimum temperature of 450C in both cases. Studies on the thermal stability of the enzyme when exposed to heat before use in substrate conversion revealed that the phytase retained over 80% of its activity when heated up to 600C for a period of 100min, showing moderate thermal stability useful in storage. The phytase is therefore recommended for use in feed formulations where pH requirement falls within the acidic range and where heating or pelletization is not required, such as in poultry feed formulations.
Phytases have been Investigated as a possible solution to the problems of the anti-nutritive properties ofphytate in meals for monogastrics and environmental phosphorous pollution. The aim of this study was to isolate, screen and characterize phytase-producing bacteria species from an abattoir, which can possibly be employed in the large scale production of phytase. Bacteria species were isolated from a sample of top soil from an abattoir and purified by subculturing. Edible cowpea (Vigna sp) and refined calcium phytate (sigma) were used as the source ofphytate in media. The phytate, total, free and phytin phosphorus contents of cowpea were evaluated. Media were compounded using the cowpea and calcium phytate and the isolates were screened on plates for ability to produce phytase. The isolates with phytase-producing ability were identified by their sugar utilization and other biochemical tests and thereafter identified by bioinformatics using the apiweb software. Result of the cowpea evaluation revealed a phytate, total, free and phytin phosphorous contents of 4.51%w/w, 0.442%w/w, 0.133%w/w and 0.309%w/w respectively. Screening for phytase-producing ability on both media revealed six bacteria species to be phytase producers, all belonging to the Bacillus family (Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Paenibacillus macerans, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis). Phytase production by the isolates were observed to commence at 24 hours of incubation, reaching a peak at 120 hours both in the cowpea and calcium phytate media, however, higher halo values were observed in the cowpea medium. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were observed to produce higher halos in the calcium phytate (5.5cm) and cowpea (5.6cm) media respectively above others. This suggests that the isolates can be employed in the large scale production of phytase, using medium containing phytate in the presence of inorganic phosphate, such as agro-industrial products or wastes, thereby providing a cheaper form of substrate for phytase production whilst minimizing environmental pollution problems.
Despite a few studies on fermented local cereals, little work has focused on the effect storage temperature and variety have on bacterial population dynamics of ogi. Two varieties of ogi [white (W) primarily prepared from maize (Zea mays) and brown (B)from Sorghum bicolor] were collected from different locations in Lagos Nigeria and steeped at 40C and 25+2°C. Microbial and physicochemical parameters [optical density (OD) and pH] of the supernatants were monitored for four consecutive days to elucidate changes in bacterial populations, types and physicochemical properties. At 25+20C, total bacterial count (TBC) ranged from 7.1x 107 - 11.9 x 109 and 5.9 x 107-8.4 x 109 cfu/ml. Total coliform count (TCC) ranged from 2.1 x 107 - 5.7 x 109 and 3.0 x 106- 13.5 x 109 cfu/ml for W and B respectively. The OD ranged from 0.54-0.71 and 0.55-0.60 while pH reduced from 4.36-3.20 and 4.38-3.67 for W and B respectively. Comparatively, at 4°C, TBC ranged from 2.8 x 107-11.8 x 109 and 2.0 x 107 - 8.65 x 109 cfu/ml. TCC ranged from 1.4 x 107 -5.4 x 109 and 2.2 x107-12.7 x 109 cfu/ml. The OD ranged from 0.44-0.64 and 0.55-0.59 while pH reduced from 4.61-3.20 and 4.38-3.64 for Wand B respectively. Pseudomonas fulva, Bacillus pumilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterobacter gergoviae and E. cloacae occurred in all the W samples. Paenibacillus macerans and Kocuria kristinae however occurred only in B samples. Our findings highlighted the fact that type/variety of ogi modulated bacterial types while storage temperature had little or no effect on bacterial growth and types during short-term steeping of ogi.
"Kunun-zaki" is one of the indigenous non-alcoholic beverages prepared from guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor), millet (Pennisetum typhoides), maize (lea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) or wheat (Triticum aestivum). Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in this beverage can lead tofoodborne disease. Fifty kunun-zaki samples purchased from 10 different locations in Lagos metropolis were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Serially diluted kunun-zaki were plated in duplicates using spread plate method on nutrient and mannitol salt agar. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from twenty one (42%) kunun-zaki samples. They were identified based on their being coagulase positive, catalase positive, they fermented mannitol and they were Gram positive cocci in clusters. Staphylococcus spp which was coagulase negative was also identified in one kunun-zaki sample. The mean total viable bacterial count ranged from 4.1 xl07 cfu/ml to 1.04 x 108 cfu/ml, while the mean staphylococcal count ranged from 8.0x106 cfu/ml to 1.34x108 cfu/ml. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns observed showed that all twenty two isolates (100%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, for oxacilin, 19 isolates (86.4%) were susceptible, 2 isolates (9.1%) had intermediate resistance while only one isolate was resistant, and with cefoxitin 21 isolates (95.5%) were susceptible, while one isolate (4.5%) had intermediate resistance. Contamination of kunun-zaki with Staphylococcus aureus is of public health implication.
Chitosan was extracted from shrimp shell waste and carboxylmethyl chitosan (CMC) derivative was successfully synthesized from it by introducing a hydrophilic compound (Carboxylmethyl) into the structure of chitosan using alkaline and monochloroacetic acid. The synthesized CMC was characterized by FT-IR and H-NMR spectral analysis. Proximate analysis of CMC revealed the percentages (%) of fat (0.92), protein (3.54), fibre (0.23), moisture (11.37), ash (1.26) and carbohydrate (82.68) respectively, while fat binding capacity (FBC) and degree of substitution (DS) was 497and 0.512. The IR absorbance recorded stretching vibration of OH at 3435.00 cm-1 and CH at 2925.71 cm-1 signifying the characteristics of the Chitosan polymer. The absorbance at 13.99.70 cm- 1 was assigned to the carboxyl group in CMC indicating a successful carboxymethylation of Chitosan.