MUSHROOM: CREATING WEALTH FROM WASTE

Top Highlight Hits: 417

FIIRO has been the forerunner in the cultivation of Mushrooms in Nigeria. The project started as far back as 1988. Though people find it hard to believe that mushrooms can be cultivated in-door because people are of the opinion that mushrooms grow naturally in the wild and apart from that, eating mushrooms from the wild gives concern to the public for the fear of eating poisonous species. The advent of FIIRO in mushroom cultivation has changed the face of mushrooms in Nigeria using agro-industrial wastes. Some of the wastes FIIRO has used in the past are cotton waste, sawdust, corn cob, cassava peels, banana leaves, groundnut shell, wood shavings, cassava flour shafts, etc. FIIRO has also supplemented some of these wastes that have a low yield such as wood shavings, corn cob, cassava peels, cassava flour shaft with poultry manure, palm kernel cake, rice bran, wheat bran, etc to increase their yield which gave a positive result.

The wastes have been supportive in the cultivation of edible species of mushroom such as Pleurotus tuberregium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, etc. Spawns of these mushrooms are all available at the mushroom culture bank. These mushrooms have been grown to the commercial stage in FIIRO using different wastes from the six-geopolitical.

Presently, FIIRO has gone beyond laboratory cultivation and effort is now being geared towards the commercial cultivation of mushrooms to make them available to the public and increase people’s awareness. FIIRO is also striving to increase the protein intake of Nigerians believed to be exceptionally low, especially the low-income earners that cannot afford the expensive protein from meat, milk, and so on. The use of cotton waste in the past for its high yield compared to other agro-wastes relegated these wastes to the background but with the scarcity of cotton waste, modern technology has been developed for the use of sawdust. This is supplemented with rice bran, wheat bran, or palm kernel cake which now gives yield better than cotton waste. New species of mushrooms are being sourced every day to increase species of mushroom cultured and give Nigerians a variety of mushrooms to savour.

Training of small and medium-scale entrepreneurs has also been part of FIIRO’s effort in making sure that Nigerians cultivate the habit of eating mushrooms. The SMEs were trained in the art of mushroom cultivation making use of agro-industrial wastes.

With the pace FIIRO is going in creating awareness, training of SMEs, the future of mushrooms in Nigeria is going to be great. It will be another source of income to the country earning, creating jobs for the unemployed youth and improve the nutritional intake of Nigerians by eating mushrooms and increase the immune systems by eating mushrooms. Also, the commercial cultivation in the Institute will be a source of income apart from the sale of spawns.

In the area of bioremediation, mushrooms have been discovered to be a veritable tool in the cleaning of our environment, the use of wastes for the cultivation reduces land pollution while the mushroom mycelia also have been worked upon and discovered to be useful in the biodegradation of toxic chemicals and spilled crude oil.

The Institute has used the following wastes extensively to cultivate mushrooms: Cotton waste, sawdust, rice bran, cassava peel, yam peel, sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran corn cob, sawdust, cassava peel, yam peel, cotton waste, wheat bran, groundnut shells, rice straw, etc and have mixed the substrates to increases yields of the mushroom fruits. 

At the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO) several techniques have been adapted for the cultivation of the mushroom which thrives in the temperature range of 28-36oC and relative humidity of 75-88oC.

The table below shows a summary of wastes and their mushroom yields.

MUSHROOM CULTIVATION SUBSTRATES AND YIELD

S/N

GROWING MEDIUM

MUSHROOM SPECIES

PERCENTAGE YIELD

1

Rice straw

Straw (Volvariella)

Oyster (Pleurotus)

76%

65%

2

Wheat Bran

Oyster (Pleurotus)

68%

 

3

Sawdust/Rice bran

Lentinus squarroslus

70%

4

Sawdust/Rice bran

Oyster (Pleurotus)

85%

 

5

Cotton Waste

Oyster (Pleurotus)

80%

 

6

Corncobs

Oyster (Pleurotus)

60%

7

Paper

Oyster (Pleurotus)

14.9

8

Sugarcane Bagasse

Oyster (Pleurotus)

22

9

Water Hyacinth

Oyster (Pleurotus)

15

10

Oil Palm Waste

Straw (Volvariella)

60

11

Cocoa Shell Waste

Oyster (Pleurotus)

20%

12

Banana leaves

Oyster (Pleurotus)

30%

13

Cassava peel

Oyster (Pleurotus)

27%

14

Yam peel

Oyster (Pleurotus)

-

15

Cassava peel/Soybean Chaff 

Oyster (Pleurotus)

72

 

Slide background

Auricularia Auricula-Judae, (Wood Ear or Black Wood Ear)

Slide background

Compost Mixing

Slide background

Calocybe Indica (Milky White Mushroom)

Slide background
Slide background

Young Calocybe Indica (Milky White Mushroom)

Slide background
Slide background
Slide background

Auricularia Auricula-Judae, (Wood Ear or Black Wood Ear)

Slide background

Spawn

Slide background

Pleurotus Pulmonarius, (Indian Oyster, Phoenix Mushroom, Lung Oyster)

Slide background
Slide background

Available mushrooms

FIIRO has worked on the isolation and cultivation of different species of mushrooms which include:

Pleurotus tuberregium

Pleurotus pulmonarius

Pleurotus ostreatus

Volvariella volvacea

Lentinus squarroslus

Calocybe indica

Auricularia auricula

The culture of these mushrooms can be gotten from the Biotechnology Department of the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi.

 FIIRO Spawn Production

FIIRO established a world-class spawn center where spawn of different species of mushrooms can be purchased. The center is equipped to cater to the spawn needs of mushroom farmers in Nigeria and the West African region.

Print