The Thermo Electron S-Series atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Lead, Chromium and Cadmium in undehulled sesame seeds.
The range of concentrations of heavy metals in the samples were 83.10 to 114.01mg/kg Fe, 70.60 to 108.00mg/kg Zn, 15.37 to 24.06mg/kg Cu, 0.78 to 3.12mg/kg Pb, 0.47 to 1.31mg/kg Cr and <0.01 to 0.03mg/kg Cd. The mean concentrations obtained were 95.81mg/kg Fe, 87.96mg/kg Zn, 19.60mg/kg Cu, 1.67mg/kg Pb and 0.83mg/kg Cr. Cadmium was not detected in most of the samples. The concentrations of the heavy metals in sesame seeds reported in this study were bioconcentrated by the plant from the background levels of these elements in the soil. The levels of these heavy metals in this study can be regarded as normal values and should not be a source of health concern.
TThe effect of heat treatment on urease activity and protein content of soybeans was investigated in order to ascertain processing adequacy and safety for human consumption, and also to determine how much protein (which is the major nutrient) is lost or retained during processing. Three different heat treatments - toasting at 80oC, boiling in water and microwave heating - were used for different time periods ranging from 10-90 mins and samples were analysed afterwards, along with an untreated control, in three replicate determinations. Results show that for soybeans to be fit for human consumption, the seeds need to be boiled for up to 45 mins for the anti-nutritional factor to be taken care of, however with a reduction of almost half of the initial protein content. Toasted and microwave heated seeds retained their protein content, but they were urease positive (implying inadequate processing) and therefore should only be used when further cooking such as baking, frying or boiling has been done.
Managing engineering assets is a paramount organisational approach to operating, maintaining and upgrading physical asset in a most cost-effective way. These processes, among many others, are usually carried out throughout the life-cycle of engineering assets. This study examined the Engineering Assets Management (EAM) processes in selected small and medium-scale food manufacturing companies in South-western Nigeria. Data were collected from selected 30 food manufacturing companies registered with National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) in the study area. The questionnaire was administered to top officials in the companies. The data was analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that most food manufacturing companies had some practice guidelines used in their EAM procedures which is elemental. Only few of these manufacturing companies employed holistic life-cycle approach (the core concept) in EAM practices. They used capabilities and skills of their maintenance crew, documentation of information about the equipment from the manufacturer, and use of contractors as flexible maintenance resource as important factors in determining their assets management approach.
The study assessed the methods of transfer and extent of utilisation of research and development (R&D) results from research institutes in South-western Nigeria. It also examined the various businesses established by entrepreneurs based on acquired technologies as well as the various factors affecting commercialisation of R&D results. The results of data collected through primary and secondary sources from the research institutes, indicated that new processes and products (technologies) were developed by researchers in research institutes. These include: laundry and toilet soap production; cassava processing; palm wine bottling and preservation; among many others. The secondary data obtained from available publications include research reports and published articles. The study showed that out of 104 commercialisable research results generated, 54.8% (57) had been transferred and practised by investors. The effectiveness of various methods of R&D results’ transfer used by research institutes were seminar (3.1), workshop (3.6), trade fairs/exhibitions (3.1), technical assistance service (3.5) and feasibility studies (3.5). Results also showed that commercialisation could be categorised into two such as commercialisation of R&D results by the research institutes (internal commercialisation) and commercialisation by investors who acquired the technologies (external commercialisation). This revealed that out of the 54.8% of the 104 research results transferred, 56.1% were commercialised by the research institutes while 29.8% were commercialised by the investors. Several factors that had affected commercialisation of R&D results severely include lack of investible funds (4.9), unsustainable government policy (4.5), lack of infrastructural facilities (3.9), as well as apathy to local R&D results adoption (3.6). These factors were significantly the same (F= 6.704, p≤0.05). The study revealed workshop was the most effective method of transferring R&D results while the utilisation of R&D results was carried out both by the research institutes and entrepreneurs; the greatest limiting factor for R&D results commercialisation was lack of funds by entrepreneurs.
A major component of an extrusion cooker (also known as extruder) is the electric motor which produces the mechanical power needed to drive the main shaft of the extruder. When a highly rated motor is involved; careful design is required for maximum protection of the electric motor. This work is therefore all about the construction of a star delta starter panel required to power, protect and control the operation of a 50hp extruder motor at the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria (FIIRO). The circuit is in two parts namely – the power circuit and the control circuit. The circuit is housed in a metallic enclosure and connected to the terminals of the motor through a flexible power cable. Proper design of a motor starter for heavy duty application such as these entails guided selection of control components, assembly and wiring method. The materials used for the construction were purchased from the local market and assembled together to form a unit. The design was carried out in such a way as to minimize cost and increase the safety level.
This study evaluates the corrosion behaviours of two grades of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2 steels embedded in concrete and exposed to ordinary water and high chlorine rich seawater environment. Samples of the steels were embedded in concrete with cement-sand-gravel ratio of 1:2:4; cured at different times and later immersed in the corroding media. Corrosion potentials were measured using Cu/CuSo4 reference electrode and the voltmeter. The ST60Mn steel grade was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and seawater environment. The corrosion potential of the steel in air is about twice that embedded in concrete. Long exposure of reinforced concrete structures to chlorine water might result to quick deterioration. Careful attention should therefore be paid to buildings, bridges, elevated highways, parking garages, offshore oil platforms, piers and tunnels, built on or over water.