The Federal Government of Nigeria through its agency, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) mandated vitamin A and mineral iron fortification of flour and flour products to improve the health and wellbeing of her citizen. Forty samples of flour made up of ten each of four brands of wheat and maize flours were tested for microbial load and levels of vitamin A and iron to ascertain the qualities and level of compliance with the fortification directives of Federal Government of Nigeria. The total aerobic plate counts of the samples ranged from 2.0×103 ± 1.22cfu/g to 9.0×103 ± 1.08cfu/g. The fungal and S. aureus counts ranged from 2.0×103 ± 0.91 cfu/g to 5.0×104 ± 1.77cfu/g and 1.0x102 ± 0.00 cfu/g to 1.0x103 ± 1.08 cfu/g. No coliform was isolated from the samples. Microbial species detected from the samples included Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Aspergillus, Mucor and Saccharomyces. All the flour samples showed significantly high (p = 0.05) level of iron above the recommended level of 40.70 Mg/Kg. However, the level of vitamin A in all the samples was significantly lower (p = 0.05) than 30000±0.00 IU/Kg recommended for fortification. There was no positive correlation between iron and or vitamin A fortification and total viable microbial counts. There is urgent need for consumer level certification of products by regulatory agencies, to ensure that substandard goods are not produced and sold to consumers.
The economic and quality enhancement of tomatoes in the control of deterioration during transportation and storage has been a long-standing subject of research. It has been reported that good packaging helps to extend the shelf lives of fruits and vegetables and keeps them in good condition until they are sold or consumed. A study was carried out to analyze the deterioration of tomato in transport packaging materials. Three packaging material; Raffia basket, Plastic crate, and
Wooden crate and two distinct shape of tomato fruit ; Oblong and Round were used for the experiment The tomato fruits were loaded in the transport packaging materials and stored for 21days under ambient conditions. Firmness, Weight loss percentage and Percentage Shrinkage were investigated to analyze the deterioration state of the tomato in the various samples. The results showed that all samples had reduction in firmness level; increase percentage shrinkage and increase
in weight loss. Visible observation of samples revealed that the tomatoes stored in the plastic crates suffered the least damage from deterioration and were generally more pleasant to behold.
This study was done to identify the fates of cyanide in cassava waste water undergoing degradation by cyanide degrading bacterial isolates. Cyanide effluent from a cassava processing plant in Oyigbo was sampled, and transported to the General Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt within 2hours of collection. The microbiological and physico-chemical studies were carried out using standard procedures. The Experiment was designed to isolate cyanide degrading bacteria isolates, and re-inoculate the isolates singly into different set-up and the degradative potentials of each cyanide degrading bacterium in each of the experimental set-up monitored at intervals of 2days using quantitative microbiology and physico-chemical parameters. Concentration of cyanide in the treated sample decreased from 100mg/l to 3.6mg/l and that of the untreated sample decreased from 130mg/ml to 63.78mg/l. The heterotrophic bacterial loads and cyanide degrading bacteria loads ranged from 1.1 x 104 cfu/ml to 3.2x106 cfu/ml and 7.0x104 to 10.2x104 cfu/ml, respectively in the waste water. Microbial isolates from a cyanide degrading media capable of utilizing cyanide belongs to the genera Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. Thereafter 12 days biodegradation experiment, BOD of 4,800mg/l and 5,680mg/l were observed for the treated/biodegraded and untreated/control samples, respectively. The pH of 4.14 indicated a moderate acidic condition. A reduction of cyanide concentration from 30mg/l to 0.20mg/l was noticed after a period of 12 days by the two genera of bacteria, showing that these microorganisms holds a lot of promises in the biodegradation of cyanide. This observation calls for further research attentions in the area of biodegradation of cassava cyanide in cassava processing plants effluents before discharge to the environment.
There is no gainsaying the fact that entrepreneurship and economic development are simply intertwined. This assertion is evident in the fact that Entrepreneurs create new businesses, these newly created businesses create jobs and with more people having sources of incomes as a result of the newly created jobs, the economy witnesses rapid increase in the level of disposable income available.
Furthermore, new businesses intensify competition and with intensified competition may come improved quality in order to buy over the loyalty of customers Moreover, increased productivity in new businesses may be achieved through the adoption of technological changes; this will increase the money making aspect of an organization's activities which in turn would lead to further research into new technologies, encouraging more successful organizations and on and on it goes. This invariably demonstrates that a high level of utilization of entrepreneurial skills to develop entrepreneurship activities will translate to great economic growth and development.
The general objective of this paper is to identify the relevance of Entrepreneurial skills in business growth as well as economic development. The study covered different areas of business, Manufacturing and service sectors alike with the findings revealing that the possession of entrepreneurial skills is imperative for business growth and by implication economic growth and development.
The challenge of environmental pollution and the need to generate income through fuel oil production from waste plastic materials as an alternative form of energy has necessitated this work. A low density polyethylene (LDPE) material was cut into smaller pieces, and was thermally decomposed under a high reacting temperature in the absence of oxygen using diesel as the carrier oil. The temperature ranges for the decomposition is between 1800C- 2000C for a constant volume of diesel (20ml) and for varying volume of diesel 10- 30ml and both yielded 220%. The fuel oil obtained is comparable to kerosene in terms of its physiochemical properties and GCMS analysis. The residue obtained is similar to lubricating grease on the basis of its physical appearance. This research work has both environmental and economic benefits because the raw material is readily available as waste in the environment, and it gave a considerable percentage yield of 220% of fuel oil.
Currently, there is a massive drift in bacteria as a result of emergence of resistant strains to conventional paint biocides. This study focused on a photodestructive strategy of paint microorganisms using titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The comparative toxicity of microcrystalline TiO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles (NPs) on Bacillus sphaericus, a spore forming and environmentally diverse microbe isolated from spoilt paints was investigated. The antibacterial performance of the TiO2 NPs with 38nm particle size in the inhibition of Bacillus sphaericus and their toxic effect on the viability of the organism are illustrated and discussed in comparison with results obtained from the microcrystalline TiO2 The results show 90% reduction of the B. sphaericus cell viability at 10g/L concentrations of TiO2 NPs under fluorescent light (400-700 nm) after 60 min irradiation. In contrast, a 40% reduction was observed for microcrystalline TiO2 (as determined by plate count assay) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In particular, the toxicity of both microcrystalline TiO2 and TiO2 NPs was also observed in the dark although with reduced influence. TiO2 NPs were found to exhibit bacteriostatic and photocatalytic effect on B. sphaericus as exposure time increases. Results of this study suggests that a longer exposure time could impact bactericidal activity. The results of the study showed that photocatalytic inactivation of paint bacteria can be directly linked to time of exposure.